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Conway (Conwy) Castle, at the mouth of the River Conway (Afon Conwy) in North Wales. The castle is a good example of the superb engineering of the late 13th century. Its building was ordered by Edward I after he defeated the Welsh prince Llewellyn in 1282. The castle is built in the shape of a Welsh harp. Note the hill in the foreground, which enemies thought would shield an approach from the sea and up the river. It didn't; the south-western tower of the castle was cleverly positioned on a small rise so that the lookout could see round the back of the hill, out to sea. The castle was therefore always ready for any invaders, and was never taken by surprise.

To the left of the castle you can see the suspension bridge over the Conwy, built by Thomas Telford in the 19th century as part of the road links from England to the ferry port at Anglesey.


This is a Neolithic burial chamber at an ancient site in North Wales. Many thousands of years after this was built, the site was adopted by Germanus, who built a Christian chapel nearby in around AD429. The site is known as Capel Garmon, which is Welsh for the Chapel of Germanus.

Neolithic (stone age) people lived in Britain for many thousands of years before the arrival of the Celts, let alone the Romans. They left many striking remains. Most consist of tombs, but some are dolmen (standing stones) or mystic sites (Stonehenge, Avebury). The other legacy these early people left is invisible today - they, together with the Ice Age, were responsible for cutting down a lot of Britain's forests. Wales is blessed with a particularly high proportion of neolithic sites, pointing to the area as having been of great importance from very early times.

Caerhun literally means `the castle of Rhun'. Rhun was an ancient chieftain in North Wales. The old castle has long since disappeared. The modern building is a Victorian manor house in the Gothic style, which is now used as an accountancy training centre.

North Wales is noted for its spectacular and rugged scenery. Welsh names are often awkward for people not brought up in the Welsh tradition. This one is Pen Llithrig y Wrach (the Witches' Slide). The steep side of the `slide' drops down to a large and inaccessible lake, Llyn Crafnant.

Views in North Wales can be stunning, as in this example looking down the Conwy valley towards the sea.


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